• Joint Microbiome Facility (JMF)

    of the Medical University of Vienna and the University of Vienna

  • The Joint Microbiome Facility provides

    highly multiplexed gene amplicon sequencing

  • The Joint Microbiome Facility provides

    whole genome sequencing

  • The Joint Microbiome Facility provides

    metagenome and metatranscriptome sequencing

JMF News

Latest publications

The phageome in normal and inflamed human skin.

Dysbiosis of skin microbiota drives the progression of atopic dermatitis (AD). The contribution of bacteriophages to bacterial community compositions in normal and inflamed skin is unknown. Using shotgun metagenomics from skin swabs of healthy individuals and patients with AD, we found 13,586 potential viral contiguous DNA sequences, which could be combined into 164 putative viral genomes including 133 putative phages. The Shannon diversity index for the viral metagenome-assembled genomes (vMAGs) did not correlate with AD. In total, we identified 28 vMAGs that differed significantly between normal and AD skin. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation of three complete vMAGs revealed their independence from host bacterium abundance. Our data indicate that normal and inflamed skin harbor distinct phageomes and suggest a causative relationship between changing viral and bacterial communities as a driver of skin pathology.

Wielscher M, Pfisterer K, Samardzic D, Balsini P, Bangert C, Jäger K, Buchberger M, Selitsch B, Pjevac P, Willinger B, Weninger W
2023 - Sci Adv, 39: eadg4015

Microbial growth under drought is confined to distinct taxa and modified by potential future climate conditions.

Climate change increases the frequency and intensity of drought events, affecting soil functions including carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, which are driven by growing microorganisms. Yet we know little about microbial responses to drought due to methodological limitations. Here, we estimate microbial growth rates in montane grassland soils exposed to ambient conditions, drought, and potential future climate conditions (i.e., soils exposed to 6 years of elevated temperatures and elevated CO levels). For this purpose, we combined O-water vapor equilibration with quantitative stable isotope probing (termed 'vapor-qSIP') to measure taxon-specific microbial growth in dry soils. In our experiments, drought caused >90% of bacterial and archaeal taxa to stop dividing and reduced the growth rates of persisting ones. Under drought, growing taxa accounted for only 4% of the total community as compared to 35% in the controls. Drought-tolerant communities were dominated by specialized members of the Actinobacteriota, particularly the genus Streptomyces. Six years of pre-exposure to future climate conditions (3 °C warming and + 300 ppm atmospheric CO) alleviated drought effects on microbial growth, through more drought-tolerant taxa across major phyla, accounting for 9% of the total community. Our results provide insights into the response of active microbes to drought today and in a future climate, and highlight the importance of studying drought in combination with future climate conditions to capture interactive effects and improve predictions of future soil-climate feedbacks.

Metze D, Schnecker J, Canarini A, Fuchslueger L, Koch BJ, Stone BW, Hungate BA, Hausmann B, Schmidt H, Schaumberger A, Bahn M, Kaiser C, Richter A
2023 - Nat Commun, 1: 5895

Cultivation and genomic characterization of novel and ubiquitous marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the Nitrospirales.

Nitrospirales, including the genus Nitrospira, are environmentally widespread chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These mostly uncultured microorganisms gain energy through nitrite oxidation, fix CO, and thus play vital roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling. Over the last decade, our understanding of their physiology has advanced through several new discoveries, such as alternative energy metabolisms and complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox Nitrospira). These findings mainly resulted from studies of terrestrial species, whereas less attention has been given to marine Nitrospirales. In this study, we cultured three new marine Nitrospirales enrichments and one isolate. Three of these four NOB represent new Nitrospira species while the fourth represents a novel genus. This fourth organism, tentatively named "Ca. Nitronereus thalassa", represents the first cultured member of a Nitrospirales lineage that encompasses both free-living and sponge-associated nitrite oxidizers, is highly abundant in the environment, and shows distinct habitat distribution patterns compared to the marine Nitrospira species. Partially explaining this, "Ca. Nitronereus thalassa" harbors a unique combination of genes involved in carbon fixation and respiration, suggesting differential adaptations to fluctuating oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, "Ca. Nitronereus thalassa" appears to have a more narrow substrate range compared to many other marine nitrite oxidizers, as it lacks the genomic potential to utilize formate, cyanate, and urea. Lastly, we show that the presumed marine Nitrospirales lineages are not restricted to oceanic and saline environments, as previously assumed.

Mueller AJ, Daebeler A, Herbold CW, Kirkegaard RH, Daims H
2023 - ISME J, in press